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Last updated:

May 17, 2022


6 months


This course includes:

6 months

Badge on Completion

Certificate of completion

6 months


Introduces students to the principles, laws, and policies that influence the use of animal and alternative, non-animal-based (humane sciences) research techniques in biomedical research.

Course Objectives

Upon completing this course, students will be able to:
  • Describe the principles that govern the use of laboratory animals in research
  • Identify the steps by which biomedical research involving animals is reviewed by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs)
  • Explain the guiding principles of humane science, including the "3Rs" - reduction, refinement, and replacement
  • Assess the ways in which the application of humane science principles in biomedical research can lead to more robust scientific methodology and results

Course Requirements

Lectures: There are nine required lectures and three optional lectures in this course. Students are expected to read materials relevant to each lecture in addition to viewing the online presentation.
Topic Readings
Session 0: Introduction and Overview Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing
Session 1: 3Rs and Humane Science Goldberg AM, Hartung T. Protecting more than animals. Scientific American January 2006: 84-91 Gawrylewski A. The trouble with animal models. The Scientist 2006;21:44 Festig S. Animal Experimentation: The Need for Deliberation and Challenge. ATLA 2008;36:1-4 Locke, P., Goldberg, A.M., Chapter 10 in "Toxicology and the Regulatory Process: Alternatives to Animals in Toxicology," Sidney Green (ed), Taylor & Francis 2006 Goldberg AM, Locke PA. To 3R is humane. The Environmental Forum. 2004:18-26 Gardner RM, Goldberg AM. Pain-free animals: An acceptable alternative? Proceedings of the 6th World Congress on Alternatives & Animal Use in the Life Sciences. Tokyo, Japan. March 31, 2008. AltWeb from the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing Russell WMS, Burch RL. The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Committee on Toxicity Testing and Assessment of Environmental Agents, National Research Council. Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Washington DC: The National Academies Press, 2007. Online Humane Science Course
Session 2: Legal and Policy Issues in Humane Science: Where Have We Been, Where Are We Now, and Where Are We Going? Goldberg AM, Spielmann H. High production volume (HPV) chemical testing. In: M. Balls, et al., eds. Progress in the Reduction, Refinement and Replacement of Animal Experimentation. Philadelphia: Elsevier. 2000 Green S, Goldbert AM, Zurlo J. TestSmart-high production volume chemicals: An approach to implementing alternatives into regulatory toxicology. Toxicological Sciences 2001;63:6-14 US vs. Catholic Healthcare West. United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Filed April 19, 2006 Nuffield Council on Bioethics. The ethics of research involving animals. London: Nuffield Council on Bioethics, 2005 Eigo T. Laws for paws: A new breed of law section. Arizona Attorney, December 2005 Sunstein CR. The rights of animals: A very short primer. Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper No. 30. The Law School of the University of Chicago US Animal Welfare Act Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Toxic Substances Control Act ICCVAM Authorization Act of 2000
Session 3: Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees: An Overview Schuppli CA, Fraser D, McDonald M. Expanding the three Rs to meet new challenges inhumane animal experimentation. ATLA 2004;32:525-532 Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, 2nd Edition. 2002
Session 4: Ethical Issues in Research Emmanuel EJ, Wendler D, Grady C. What makes clinical research ethical? JAMA 2000;283:2701-2711 The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. The Belmont Report: Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects in research. The National Institutes of Health.
Session 5: International Issues in Humane Science 7th Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive in the EU. 27 February 2003 Canadian Council on Animal Care European Union REACH Legislation Animal Memorial Service, Tokyo, Japan Alternatives to Animal Testing - In Song
Session 6: Refinement Issues in Animal Research No Reading Required
Session 7: The Compelling Case for Rigorous Training Requirements No Reading Required
Session 8: Wrap-up No Reading Required

Course Curriculum

    • 3Rs and Humane Science (Alan M. Goldberg) 01:40:00
    • Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees: An Overview (Joanne Zurlo) 00:50:00
    • International Issues in Humane Science (Alan M. Goldberg) 00:40:00
    • Refinement Issues in Animal Research (Joanne Zurlo) 00:40:00

About the instructor


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John Hopkin University