This course includes:

4 weeks

Badge on Completion

Certificate of completion

4 weeks

The initial treatment for any cold weather-related injury involves removing yourself or others from the precipitating cold environment, if possible, to prevent further heat loss. Move indoors, and remove all wet clothing and constricting clothing (such as socks, boots, and gloves), and replace with dry clothing.

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OpenCoursa

September 21, 2023

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Last updated:

September 21, 2023

Duration:

4 weeks

This course includes:

4 weeks

Badge on Completion

Certificate of completion

4 weeks

Description

The initial treatment for any cold weather-related injury involves removing yourself or others from the precipitating cold environment, if possible, to prevent further heat loss. Move indoors, and remove all wet clothing and constricting clothing (such as socks, boots, and gloves), and replace with dry clothing.

Overview/Description
The skin and the tissues under it are kept at a constant temperature (about 98.6° F, or 37° C) by the circulating blood and other mechanisms. The blood gets its heat mainly from the energy given off by cells when they burn (metabolize) food—a process that requires a steady supply of food and oxygen. A normal body temperature is necessary for the proper functioning of all the cells and tissues in the body. In a person with low body temperature, most organs, especially the heart and brain, become sluggish and eventually stop working.
Body temperature falls when the skin is exposed to colder surroundings. In response to this fall in temperature, the body uses several protective mechanisms to generate additional heat. For example, the muscles produce additional heat through shivering. Also, the small blood vessels in the skin narrow (constrict), so that more blood is diverted to vital organs, such as the heart and brain. However, as less warm blood reaches the skin, body parts such as the fingers, toes, ears, and nose cool more rapidly. If body temperature falls much below about 88° F (about 31° C), these protective mechanisms stop working, and the body cannot warm itself. If body temperature falls below 83° F (about 28° C), death may occur.
The risk of cold injuries increases in the following circumstances:
  • When the flow of blood is too slow
  • When food intake is inadequate
  • When dehydration or exhaustion occurs
  • When the environment is wet or when a body part contacts something wet
  • When the person comes into contact with a metal surface
  • When insufficient oxygen is available, as occurs at high altitude
Cold injuries are less likely to occur, even in extremely cold weather, if the skin, fingers, toes, ears, and nose are well protected or are exposed only briefly.

Prevention

Keeping warm in a cold environment requires several layers of clothing, preferably wool or synthetics such as polypropylene, because these materials insulate even when wet. Because the body loses a large amount of heat from the head, a warm hat is essential.
Eating enough food and drinking enough fluids (particularly warm fluids) also help. Food provides fuel to be burned, and warm fluids directly provide heat and prevent dehydration. Alcoholic beverages should be avoided because alcohol widens (dilates) blood vessels in the skin, which makes the body temporarily feel warm but actually causes greater heat loss.
Cold injuries include
  • Frostbite
  • Hypothermia
  • Nonfreezing tissue injuries (chilblains, frostnip, and immersion foot)
Other problems related to the cold include Raynaud syndrome and allergic reactions to the cold. Course Content
  • Cold Injuries
  • Introduction
  • Outline
  • Regulation of Body’s Temp
  • Typical Victim of a Cold Weather Injury
  • Susceptibility Factors
  • Types of Cold Injuries
  • Hypothermia
  • Frostbite
  • Chilblains
  • Trench
  • Dehydration
  • Constipation
  • Sunburn
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
  • Snow Blindness
  • Conclusion

Course Curriculum

    • Cold Injuries 00:05:00
    • Introduction 00:20:00
    • Outline 00:05:00
    • Regulation of Body’s Temp 00:25:00
    • Typical Victim of a Cold Weather Injury 00:10:00
    • Susceptibility Factors 00:20:00
    • Types of Cold Injuries 00:05:00
    • Hypothermia 01:15:00
    • Frostbite 01:20:00
    • Chilblains 00:40:00
    • Trench 01:00:00
    • Dehydration 00:30:00
    • Constipation 00:20:00
    • Sunburn 00:25:00
    • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning 00:45:00
    • Snow Blindness 00:20:00
    • Conclusion 00:05:00
    • General Health and Safety Assessment 4 weeks
    • Cold Injuries and Prevention Training Test 00:45:00

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